VIOLENCE AGAINST NATURE
We can consider that when we talk about "violence" it only includes physical or psychological violence against people, but damaging nature, the world in which we live, is another type of violence that we do not refer to much but which is just as important since, as we all know, climate change is one of the biggest current problems. Therefore, the imminent degradation of nature can be defined as the process of deterioration suffered by the environment as a consequence of the depletion of its natural resources due to the overexploitation to which they are subjected, thus causing the destruction of ecosystems and their biodiversity.
How we can see this deterioration:
- Global warming.
- The destruction of the ozone layer.
- The emergence of new diseases.
- The spread of existing diseases.
- Food insecurity
- The accumulation of waste.
Therefore, we will start by specifying the causes in order to understand everything from the beginning. Environmental degradation is also directly related to the economic development of a country and all those activities that are developed to obtain natural resources and to generate goods and services. In addition, another factor to take into account is population growth, since the larger the population, the more resources and the more goods and services are needed to satisfy the needs of the population. Therefore, it could be said that environmental degradation is caused by a combination of population growth, economic growth and the use of polluting technology.
There are many activities that cause environmental degradation, including the following:
- Urbanization growth: as the population increases, it causes a change in land use, which will be used for urban settlements. As a consequence, there is an increase in the use of water and energy, as well as an increase in the generation of waste and pollutants.
- Increase in agricultural and livestock farming activities: intensive agriculture and livestock farming not only causes a loss in soil quality due to bad practices and the use of agrochemicals, but also requires large amounts of water and the use of fossil fuels to carry out all the work that is done. The use of fossil fuels ends up emitting greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, thus contributing to global warming.
- Increased fishing activity: this increase is also due to population growth; unsustainable fishing can lead to the disappearance of many of the species that inhabit marine ecosystems.
- Transport: this produces large quantities of emissions of atmospheric pollutants, altering air quality and posing a danger to human health. But it is not only emissions that are a problem, but also all the waste generated by transport, such as oils, lubricants, scrap metal, the generation of noise, as well as the need for hydrocarbons to make them work.
- Industry: although industry generates jobs, it is one of the causes that has the greatest impact on the environment. It generates large quantities of waste of all kinds, polluting the soil, water and atmosphere. It requires the burning of fossil fuels to generate energy and some are highly dangerous, causing a major environmental disaster in the event of an accident.
- Deforestation: deforestation is destroying many of the planet's ecosystems, as well as the biodiversity found in them, and in many cases even destroying indigenous settlements.
POSSIBLE NATURE-BASED SOLUTIONS
Nature-Based Solutions have become a key concept to jointly address the environmental challenges of climate change, biodiversity loss and land degradation. Their application in agriculture can not only benefit productivity, but also support recovery strategies to the crisis caused by the pandemic in the Latin American and Caribbean region.
Latin America and the Caribbean is one of the world's most biodiverse regions, with 16% of the world's terrestrial plants and 40% of global biodiversity. But the region's natural capital has deteriorated considerably. Agriculture both suffers the consequences of environmental degradation and is part of its causes. Therefore, there is a current debate on how greater sustainability in food production, processing, transport, marketing, preservation and consumption can conserve natural capital and productivity.
Nature-based solutions (NBS) are a set of strategies for the sustainable management of ecosystems, restoring or enhancing the benefits that nature provides to people, and effectively addressing various societal challenges. SBNs bring together several ecosystem-based approaches, and relate to new paradigms of sustainable production, such as bioeconomics and agroecology, in that they address the sustainable use of biological resources to provide goods and services for the well-being of society.